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Pandorabots AIML Tag Set

Last Revised May 12, 2005

The tags in this table correspond to the set of AIML implemented by the Pandorabots AIML interpeter. These are not exactly the same set of AIML tags adopted by the AIML Architecture committee for the Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML) Version 1.0.1 A.L.I.C.E. AI Foundation Working Draft, 18 February 2005 (rev 007). For comparison see the table of AIML 1.0.1 tags at This table, however, refers to that document where appropriate.

There are both small and large differences between the Pandorabots tag set and the AIML standard. In particular, there is no <size/>, <version/>, <gossip>, <system>, or <javascript> tag in Pandorabots, and the interpretation of the <learn> tag is quite different.

Other documents useful for understanding the Pandorabots AIML tags include:

  • The AIML 1.0.1 Tags Set
  • The AIML 1.0 Tags Set
  • The AIML Overview by Dr Rich Wallace.
  • A Tutorial for adding knowledge to your robot by Doubly Aimless
  • Be Your Own Botmaster, 2nd ed. Dr. Rich Wallace
  • In the table, XML tags are shown in a shorthand notation. Closing tags are not shown. The index attribute whenever it appears is optional. The default value is index="1" (or index="1,1" for 2-d indexes). The index tag uses offset one indexing.

    AIML TagWD ReferenceRemark
    <aiml>3.2. AIML Element AIML block delimeter
    <topic name="X">4. Topic X is AIML pattern
    <category>5. Category AIML knowledge unit
    <pattern>6. Pattern AIML input pattern
    <that>6.1. Pattern-side That contains AIML pattern
    <template>7. Template AIML response template
    <star index="N"/>7.1.1. Star binding of *
    <that index="M,N"/>7.1.2. Template-side That previous bot utterance
    <input index="N"/>7.1.3. Input input sentence
    <thatstar index="N"/>7.1.4. Thatstar binding of * in that
    <topicstar index="N"/>7.1.5. Topicstar binding of * in topic
    <get name="XXX"/>7.1.6. Get Botmaster defined XXX, default
    <bot name="XXX"/> Bot Custom bot parameter
    <sr/>7.1.7. Short-cut elements <srai><star/></srai>
    <person2/>7.1.7. Short-cut elements <person2><star/></person2>
    <person/>7.1.7. Short-cut elements <person><star/></person>
    <gender/>7.1.7. Short-cut elements <gender><star/></gender>
    <id/>7.1.8. System-defined predicates client identifer
    <uppercase>7.2.1. Uppercase convert all text to Uppercase
    <lowercase>7.2.2. Lowercase convert all text to Lowercase
    <formal>7.2.3. Formal capitalize every word
    <condition name="X" value="Y">7.3.1. Condition One shot branch
    <condition name="X">7.3.1. ConditionMulti-way branch
    <condition >7.3.1. ConditionMulti-way multi-predicate branch
    <li name="X" value="Y">7.3.1. Condition used by <condition>
    <li value="Y">7.3.1. Condition used by <condition>
    <li>7.3.2. Random used by <random>,<condition>
    <random>7.3.2. Random Random uniform selection
    <set name="XXX">7.4.1. Set May return XXX or value
    <srai>7.5.1. SRAI Recursion
    <person2>7.6.1. Person2 swap 1st & 3rd person
    <person>7.6.2. Person swap 1st & 2nd person
    <gender>7.6.3. Gender change gender pronouns
    <think>7.7.1. Think Hides side-effects
    Pandorabots ExtensionPurposeRemark
    <condition name="X" value="*">Branch with undefined valueOne shot branch
    <li name="X" value="*">Branch with undefined valueused by <condition>
    <li value="*">Branch with undefined valueused by <condition>
    <date locale="X" timezone="Y" format="Z"/>date and timeUnix strftime format
    <that index="M,*"/>previous bot utterancesmulti-sentence
    <request index="N"/>input requestmulti-sentence
    <response index="N"/>output responsemulti-sentence
    <learn>save AIML categorynon standard
    <eval>AIML evaluationexpression inside <learn>

    This A. I. Foundation document is made possible through the generous support of members like you. Thanks to Dirk Scheuring for submitting editorial corrections.

    Copyright © A.L.I.C.E. AI Foundation, Inc.

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