History of ALICE A. I.
From The Turk to A.L.I.C.E.
The Life and Times of the Famous Eighteenth Century Chess Playing Machine by Tom Standage. "You can talk to Alice, and there are also articles about social reactions to chatterbots and the rules of the Loebner contest."
- http://cogsci.ucsd.edu/~asaygin/tt/ttest.html t h e t u r i n g t e s t p a g e by Ayse Pinar Saygin, "The Future of the Turing Test: The Next 50 Years TIME IS UP!!! A conference at Dartmouth College to be held January 28-30, 2000 along with the 2000 Loebner Prize Contest
Postscript: I was there! It was a really nice conference with many interesting discussions... Congrats to Richard Wallace and ALICE for their success at this year's Loebner Contest!"
- www.turing.org.uk/turing/scrapbook/gsoh.html The Turing Test Sourcebook by Andrew Hodges. "The competition for 2000, the fiftieth anniversary of Turing's prediction, was held at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. The winner was A. L. I. C. E. by Richard Wallace."
'Professor Weizenbaum was also among the first to write about how some computer programmers become too engrossed in their work; for them, he coined the term "compulsive programmers."
Many new conversational computer programs have appeared in the decades since ELIZA was created. Among the most remarkable in recent years has been ALICE.'
Artificial Intelligence Tutorial Review
Developed and compiled by Eyal Reingold
The Turing Test: Alan Turing and the Imitation Game.
"Dr. Hugh Loebner, a professor very much interested in seeing AI succeed, pledged $100,000 to the first entrant that could pass the test. The 1991 contest had some serious problems though, (perhaps most notable was that the judges were all computer science specialists, and knew exactly what kind of questions might trip up a computer)."
- sitereview.org/?article=818 'A.L.I.C.E is an "Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity" capable of intelligent conversation. She will amaze you with her ability to come up with a relevant response to just about anything! If I didn't know better, I'd think she was human.'
[/a] Natural Language and Computer Programs by Derek Walker. "Anyone
who has tried to explain the workings of a computer, or even a VCR, to
an older relative has a very good idea of why natural language
operation is a goal of computer science researchers. Simply put, most
people have no desire to learn a computer language in order to use
their electronic devices... ALICE's programming can become quite
complex, to the extent of mapping out entire common conversations.
This may seem like a never-ending task, due to the sheer number of
possible things that could be said in a conversation, but ALICE.s
programmers realized that it was not that important. The reason this
is not completely unwieldy (since possible sentences and conversations
grow exponentially every step in), is because of a phenomenon that is
a generalization of the Zipf distribution. In a Zipf distribution,
given a list of statistically related things, such as city
populations, there is a correlation between their place on the list
and their value as a fraction of the top one. Applied to
conversations, after the huge variety of opening conversational
gambits, there are fewer follow-ups that make sense, and after those,
even fewer third-steps. So there are fewer branches coming out of
each successive node, and that means the choices will eventually limit
Copyright © A.L.I.C.E. AI Foundation, Inc.